In Japan, the word ‘creativity’ is often used to refer to the greatest talent and the works of special people such as a great scientist, writer, architect, painter or musician. The number of Nobel Prize winners who are recognised as greatest scientists has increased rapidly during the last 20 years (16 winners). This number is second largest to the US. Why has the number suddenly increased? Several reasons can be inferred. The number of university students has increased rapidly since the 1960s. Many brilliant students who graduated from Japan’s universities then studied in American universities or research institutes and discovered themes connected to the Nobel Prize. After much trial and error, they finally completed these studies. Another reason may be attributed to their dexterity or the ability to think out unusual methods to solve problems in their areas.
Parents and teachers have a lasting impact on the development of creativity. Results of this narrative and art-based inquiry support the theory that positive and adverse interactions with parents and teachers create rippling effects that extend well into adulthood.
Both creativity and talent are defined in many different ways. This paper provides a valuable insight into how talented Romanian students are currently being identified and their talents nurtured, as perceived mainly by school counsellors. Their recommendations and those of the authors are highly relevant for anyone interested in improving educational provision for highly creative and talented students.
The identification of high potential for creative achievement as an integrated part of talent, and nurturing it, have always been significant challenges for education. We aim to explore how educationists perceive talent and strategies for its promotion in the Romanian cultural and socio-economic environments. To achieve a first image on this topic, we investigated school counsellors' perceptions on talent promotion inside the Romanian formal educational system. Thus, our approach was indirect, exploring the situation of the practices regarding talent in our country, through the lens of the professionals, as reflected in their current activity.
Our survey focused on the following issues: identification of talent, teacher training in the psycho-pedagogy of excellence, types of special programs and their impact, and general educational context. Results suggest that practices regarding talent identification and development tend to differ from one region to another, indicating the lack of an integrated, coherent and unitary methodology. Respondents suggest that cognitive dimensions have priority, with great importance granted to academic results, achievement in national and international contests and nominations from teachers. Among existing activities aimed at promoting talent, the non-formal seem to be most appreciated. School counsellors point to the fact that initial training in this domain is insufficient and that the educational offer is scarce. The research results also point to the crucial task of integrating the complex concept of talent, with all its components including creativity, into workable teaching and counselling applications.
Keywords: creativity, talent, creativity-supporting environment, education
What are the factors contributing to the constraints on creativity implementation in teaching within higher education? This contribution briefly explores some answers to this question drawing on research based on an interdisciplinary collaborative enquiry group in the National University of Ireland, Galway. It also points out some implications for education policy.
Creativity, higher education, constraints, education policy, social imaginary, interdisciplinarity, change
In the context of great social and economic change, creativity in higher education teaching has become, over the last decade or so, a fundamental political concern. Top-down instrumentalist policy discourses about creativity are however often disconnected from the reality of teaching practices within universities and hardly implemented on the ground. Some researchers (e.g. Craft, 2005; Craft & Jeffrey, 2008; Moran, 2010) have already investigated factors contributing to confinement on creativity in teaching and learning within schools. However, few investigations, of which Fryer (2006) is one example, have been made on creative teaching confinement specifically within higher education, notably in the Irish system.
Drawing on research based on an interdisciplinary collaborative enquiry group in the National University of Ireland, Galway, this contribution offers a combination of empirical and theoretical findings to explain some limitations to creativity implementation in teaching practices within higher education. The research revealed that academics' perceptions of the constraints on their creative teaching is not entirely coherent with the reality of their practices. Castoriadis' (2007) conception of the social imaginary is used to examine the relationship academics have with their disciplines, and how it can contribute to creativity confinement. The contribution also stresses the potential of interdisciplinary collaborative groups, as part of staff development programmes, to encourage change in academic practices towards more creativity, and ultimately to support the critical enquiry role of the university. Finally, some implications for efficient education policy on creativity are developed.
The central question of the current article concerns students' opinions on the manifestation of creativity in post-socialist Estonian society during the last decade. Creativity is widely defined as the production of relevant (socially and ethically acceptable) and effective novelty (i.e. different from the existing or completely new) in all areas of human activity (Cropley, 2011).
Approaches defining creativity as inter-related co-constructs of individual and social environments are taken as the theoretical basis of this paper. The qualitative research reported in this article focuses on students' perceptions of the positive and negative changes in the manifestation of creativity in Estonian society that have taken place in the last decade. The current study is concerned with implicit theories of creativity, as viewed by laypeople (students). It is based on students' essays (n=57) on the topic 'Manifestation of Creativity in Estonian society during the last decade'. Results are analysed using content analysis.