The central question of the current article concerns students' opinions on the manifestation of creativity in post-socialist Estonian society during the last decade. Creativity is widely defined as the production of relevant (socially and ethically acceptable) and effective novelty (i.e. different from the existing or completely new) in all areas of human activity (Cropley, 2011).
Approaches defining creativity as inter-related co-constructs of individual and social environments are taken as the theoretical basis of this paper. The qualitative research reported in this article focuses on students' perceptions of the positive and negative changes in the manifestation of creativity in Estonian society that have taken place in the last decade. The current study is concerned with implicit theories of creativity, as viewed by laypeople (students). It is based on students' essays (n=57) on the topic 'Manifestation of Creativity in Estonian society during the last decade'. Results are analysed using content analysis.
Aili Vahtrapuu PhD, is a sculptor and scientist living in Tallinn, Estonia, and Paris, France. She is currently Professor of Visual Art at Tallinn University. She studied art in Estonia and France, and was awarded her PhD by the Sorbonne1 University in 2007. Her thesis was on: New ways of utilising sound forms to revive the relationship between monumental art and architecture in urban spaces. She focused on subconscious, audio-visual perceptions and the customary preference of these in the urban environment.
Aili is an accomplished artist with a strong background in contemporary sculpture and graphic arts. In recent years, as demonstrated by the title of her thesis, she has concentrated on art in urban spaces, with particular emphasis on aural sculpture, as well as the relationship between sound and three-dimensional forms.
Milvi Martina Piir is an Estonian writer and historian. She has an MA degree in history from the University of Tartu and she is currently pursuing her PhD in Educational Sciences at Tallinn University. She is an author of innovative history textbooks, workbooks and teachers' books for schools of general education and works as the senior specialist in history at the National Examinations and Qualifications Centre. She also works as a lecturer in the history of pedagogy at the University of Tallinn and is a member of the Baltic Association of Historians of Pedagogy. For her PhD dissertation, she studies the impact of the nationalist-traditionalist history teaching in the period of Estonia's regaining of independence on the practical understanding of history among the younger generation.
As a writer, Milvi Martina Piir is an author of several novels and the winner of the national novel competition in 2008.
Ph.D., ATR-BC, LCAT
Dr. Raquel Stephenson is Associate Professor and Program Coordinator of Lesley University’s Art Therapy Program, Core Faculty in the Ph.D. Expressive Therapies program, and Faculty Fellow in Lesley’s Institute for the Arts in Health. She was a 2010/2011 Fulbright Scholar to Estonia, where she taught in the Department of Applied Creativity at Tallinn University and continues to teach periodically as a visiting guest lecturer. She is adjunct faculty at New York University. Dr. Stephenson is a board certified, registered art therapist (ATR-BC) and a licensed creative arts therapist (LCAT).
Committed to improving the lives of older adults through the arts, Dr. Stephenson’s clinical work and research has focused on a wide spectrum of older populations. She was the founder, clinical supervisor and program director of New York University’s Creative Aging Therapeutic Services - a community-based program that provided art therapy to well older adults and those with dementia. She also worked on the geriatric psychiatry unit at St. Luke’s hospital in New York City, and with programs for individuals with HIV/AIDS. She presents her work on the intersection of arts and aging and consults with emerging clinical art therapy programs nationally and internationally. She designed and implemented the first creative arts therapy program for older adults with dementia in Estonia.
Dr. Stephenson serves on the National Advisory Council and Program Advisory Committee of Arts for the Aging in Rockville, MD, and the Advisory Council of the Art Therapy Outreach Center in New York City. She also serves on the Editorial Board of the international journal, Creativity and Human Development. Dr. Stephenson is involved with the American Art Therapy Association, having served on the Educational Program Review Board and Accreditation Council for Art Therapy Education.
Eda Heinla is Associate Professor in the Department of Arts Therapies, in the Institute of Fine Arts at Tallinn University. She holds a university diploma from Tallinn Polytechnical Institute, a university Diploma in Psychology from Tartu State University, an MSc in Educational Sciences on "Pupils' Creativity and its Correlation with IQ, Progress at School and Plans to Continue Studies". In 2002, she was awarded a PhD in Social Sciences.